伊斯兰民主的悖论

几个月前,丹麦报章发表描绘穆斯林先觉默罕默德的卡通画招致阿拉伯世界的愤怒,加上哈马斯在巴勒斯坦选举中获胜以及伊朗政治中不断提高的激进主义,使得“政治伊斯兰”成为国际外交的一个基本问题。但是,一体适用的回应是不会奏效的。实际上,我们需要摈弃这样一种观念,也就是说存在一个全盘性的或者全球性的伊斯兰运动。

不同颜色的政治伊斯兰涌现成为世俗阿拉伯民族主义政权的主要替代者。这些政权的合法性建立在民族解放斗争的基础之上。由于无法解决经济和社会问题、建立法制并且保证基本自由,其合法性已经消失殆尽。例如在巴勒斯坦,以色列的占领导致环境艰难,法塔赫多年来治理混乱不堪,因此伊斯兰主义者在选举中战胜了法塔赫。

欧洲国家以及美国的历届政府对取代类似法塔赫那样的阿拉伯世俗民族主义者的“伊斯兰替代品”怀有隔代遗传的恐惧,因此维护现状。但是,该地区的君主以及世俗独裁者们压制所有的阿拉伯反对派,这意味着“保卫清真寺”成为政治参与的唯一框架。

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