1930年代即将重演

发自伦敦——刚刚闭幕的首尔G20峰会并未在货币或贸易方面达成任何协议。中美两国互相指责对方蓄意操纵货币以夺取贸易优势。世贸多哈回合谈判依旧停滞不前。事实上,当人们还在大谈新一轮货币贸易战争的“风险”之时,各国之间早已战火纷飞了。

于是乎,尽管各国领袖都呼吁抵制贸易保护主义,但1930年代的恐怖景象却正在一步步逼近。当时的贸易战是由美国于1930年颁布的《斯姆特-霍利关稅法案》(Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act)首先挑起的。而英国则用1932年的《进口税法案》(Import Duties Act)予以回击。没过多久,贸易壁垒就遍布全世界了。

在货币战争方面,英国于1931年打响了第一枪:放弃金本位制度。作为报复,美国也于1933年4月采取了同样措施。先是英镑兑美元大幅贬值,然后美元迎头赶上,发起了对英镑的新一轮贬值潮。

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