El público iraquí habla

Mucho de lo que se piensa sobre Iraq está influenciado por la violencia diaria que infesta al país. Analistas militares y de inteligencia debaten en qué medida la violencia se debe a la presencia de extranjeros, aunque se reconoce ampliamente que la mayoría de los ataques se pueden atribuir a lo que las autoridades estadounidenses llaman "elementos del antiguo régimen" con la comunidad sunita iraquí como principal pilar de resistencia. Después de haber dominado el Iraq de Sadam Hussein, y a pesar de contar con menos de una cuarta parte de la población total, se dice que los sunitas están peleando para impedir que los intereses comunitarios de la mayoría chiíta y los kurdos, un grupo étnico diferente concentrado en el norte, prevalezcan sobre los suyos.

A finales del años pasado, fui coordinador de una encuesta nacional de la opinión pública iraquí que mostró la complejidad de las relaciones comunitarias del país. Ciertamente los iraquíes de diferentes grupos religiosos o étnicos están divididos en muchos temas, pero se apegan a una identidad nacional común y muestran una preferencia por la democracia.

Para empezar, se les pidió a los iraquíes que reflexionaran sobre la caída de Sadam: ¿Iraq está mejor sin él? Entre los sunitas, sólo el 23% creen que sí. Entre los chiítas, sin embargo, 87% ven mejor a Iraq sin Sadam. Los kurdos rebasaron este número, con un 95% que afirma que hay una mejoría. Al mismo tiempo, la aplastante mayoría de los kurdos, sunitas y chiítas --más de ocho de cada diez-- prefieren que se les vea como iraquíes antes que nada, porque creen que "Iraq será una sociedad mejor si las personas se tratan las unas a las otras como iraquíes". La gran mayoría también apoya un sistema democrático para el país.

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