Das Interventionssyndrom

Der Kosovo gilt häufig als Testfall für das Konzept der „humanitären“ Intervention. Aber während der Irak zunehmend ins Chaos abgleitet, müssen sich Diplomaten und politische Führer einmal mehr der Frage stellen, ob es je gerechtfertigt ist, wenn Staatenbündnisse oder die internationale Gemeinschaft als Ganze eingreifen, wenn ein Land nicht bereit oder in der Lage zu sein scheint, seine Bürger vor Völkermord, Kriegsverbrechen und ethnischen Säuberungen zu schützen.

Im Mittelpunkt dieser Debatte steht die so genannte Doktrin der „Schutzverantwortung“ (Responsibility to Protect). Als der von den Vereinten Nationen ernannte Ombudsmann im Kosovo während der vergangenen fünf Jahre hatte ich die einzigartige Gelegenheit, die Folgewirkungen dieser Doktrin nach der Intervention der NATO im früheren Jugoslawien 1999 zu beobachten. Der Kosovo hat sich seit dieser Zeit zu einem internationalen Experiment zum Aufbau von Gesellschaften entwickelt, geleitet von der Zwischenzeitlichen Verwaltungsmission der Vereinten Nationen im Kosovo (UNMIK).

„Experiment“ ist dabei das richtige Wort. Tatsächlich ist der Kosovo zu einer Petrischale für das Konzept der internationalen Intervention geworden. Als jemand, der lange genug im Kosovo gelebt und gearbeitet hat, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse beobachten zu können, muss ich gestehen, dass derartige Experimente weiter gehende Untersuchungen erfordern.

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