干涉行动的困境

发自剑桥——国家应当在何时采取军事干涉行动以制止在其他国家境内发生的暴行?这是一个古老且通行于世界的问题。而如今它降临到了叙利亚头上。

在1904年,美国总统西奥多·罗斯福(Theodore Roosevelt)就指出:“有一些偶尔发生的罪行,其波及范围极广且极端恐怖”以致我们必须动用武力干涉。就在一个世纪前的1821年,当时欧美双方正在就是否干涉希腊独立运动进行辩论,美国总统约翰·昆西·亚当斯(John Quincy Adams)就警告自己的同胞不要去“远赴国外消灭恶人”。

更近的例子则有1994年导致80万人死亡的卢旺达大屠杀,以及1995年斯雷布雷尼察地区数千名波斯尼亚男性遭屠杀的事件,当时许多人都发誓不会再让这类惨剧重演。但当原南斯拉夫联盟共和国(南联盟)前总统斯洛博丹·米洛舍维奇(Slobodan Milošević)于1999年在科索沃地区发动大规模种族清洗时,联合国安理会通过了一项决议,将这起事件认定为人道主义灾难,但却由于俄罗斯的否决票而无法在第二项干涉行动决议上达成共识。结果北约国家轰炸南联盟的行为被许多观察家认为是“有合法性但却不合法”。

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