El papa, el partido

ALBERTA – Cuando faltaba poco para que empezara el siglo XX, el papa León XIII, atormentado por la disyuntiva que se le planteaba a la humanidad entre el socialismo ateo y el liberalismo venal, encargó a intelectuales católicos encontrar una solución mejor. La idea a la que llegaron se bautizó corporativismo y fue expuesta en 1891 en la encíclica Rerum Novarum; luego el sucesor de León durante entreguerras, Pío XI, elogió a la encíclica por “haber dado al género humano, en el momento de máxima oportunidad e incluso de necesidad, normas las más seguras para resolver adecuadamente ese difícil problema de humana convivencia que se conoce bajo el nombre de «cuestión social»”.

El corporativismo (que debe distinguirse de los esquemas de negociación tripartita que aparecieron en muchos países en los setenta con el nombre de “neocorporativismo”)fue la intervención en economía por motivaciones éticas más influyente de la historia moderna. Como la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia católica hasta fines del siglo XX, el corporativismo todavía configura constituciones, leyes y actitudes en todo el mundo. Se lo puede resumir en cuatro principios:

·         La igualdad es una triste ilusión: la mayor felicidad de las personas surgirá de ocupar el lugar que les corresponde dentro de una jerarquía legitimada por las enseñanzas católicas.

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