Le Pape et le Parti

ALBERTA – A l’aube du XXe siècle, le pape Léon XIII, inquiet du choix que s’apprêtait à faire l’humanité entre le socialisme athée et le libéralisme vénal, demanda à des intellectuels catholiques de réfléchir à une troisième voie. Sous le terme de Corporatisme, cette doctrine fut publiée en 1891 dans l’encyclique Rerum Novarum. Le successeur de Léon, le pape Pie XI, rappela qu’elle « a donné à l'humanité des directives très sûres pour résoudre les difficiles problèmes que pose la vie en société, et dont l'ensemble constitue la question sociale ».

Le corporatisme (qui doit être distingué des structures de négociations tripartites apparues dans de nombreux pays dans les années 1970 sous le terme de néo-corporatisme) est devenu l’intervention, motivée par des questions d’éthique, la plus influente de l’histoire de l’économie des temps modernes. En tant que doctrine sociale défendue par l’Église catholique jusqu’à la fin du XXe siècle, le corporatisme continue à forger les constitutions, les lois et les comportements dans une grande partie du monde. Il repose sur quatre principes majeurs :

·         L’égalité est une illusion cruelle : les gens sont plus heureux si une place déterminée leur est assignée dans une hiérarchie légitimée par l’enseignement catholique.

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