教皇和政党

阿尔伯塔——临近二十世纪时,为人类在无神论社会主义和腐败自由主义间的选择而备感神伤的教皇利奥十三世委托天主教知识分子设计一种更好的方式。利奥在两次大战间的继任者庇护十一世率先在1891年通谕Rerun Novarum中为社团主义命名,并认为它“规定了人类正确解决‘社会’难题的最可靠的规则。”

社团主义(有别于20世纪70年代以“新社团主义”名义在众多国家兴起的三方谈判机制)成为现代经济学史上最具影响力的道德干预制度。作为天主教社会教义的社团主义直到二十世纪末仍然影响着世界各地的宪法、法律和处事态度。社团主义可以提炼为四个原则:

·         平等仅仅是种残酷的幻觉:由天主教义合法指定等级地位的人是最幸福的。

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