Paul Lachine

ما سبب انخفاض التضخم في الولايات المتحدة إلى هذا الحد؟

كمبريدج ــ تُرى كيف تعايش التيسير الكمي مع استقرار الأسعار في الولايات المتحدة؟ أو كما أسمع غالبا: "كيف لم تتسبب طباعة بنك الاحتياطي لهذا القدر الكبير من النقود في ارتفاع معدل التضخم؟

لا شك أن التضخم كان منخفضاً للغاية. فخلال الأعوام الخمسة الماضية، ارتفع مؤشر أسعار المستهلك بمعدل سنوي لم يتجاوز 1.5%. كما ارتفع المقياس المفضل لدى بنك الاحتياطي الفيدرالي الأميركي لقياس التضخم ــ مؤشر أسعار نفقات الاستهلاك الشخصي، باستثناء الغذاء والطاقة ــ بمعدل لا يتجاوز 1.5%.

وفي المقابل، كانت مشتريات بنك الاحتياطي الفيدرالي من السندات الطويلة الأجل خلال هذه الفترة ضخمة بشكل غير مسبوق. فقد اشترى بنك الاحتياطي الفيدرالي ما قيمته أكثر من 2 تريليون دولار من سندات الخزانة والأوراق المالية المدعومة بالرهن العقاري، وهذا يقرب من عشرة أضعاف المعدل السنوي لشراء السندات خلال العقد الماضي. وفي العام الماضي وحده، ارتفع بند المخزون من السندات على موازنة بنك الاحتياطي الفيدرالي بأكثر من 20%.

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