La democratización oculta de China

SHANGHÁI – Desde que Xi Jinping fue ungido como el nuevo presidente de China, los informes sobre la represión oficial prácticamente no menguaron. Pero, si bien las críticas del historial de derechos humanos de China claramente están fundamentadas, es importante no perder de vista el alcance del cambio político genuino en China.

Desde 1978, el sistema político de China ha monitoreado la transferencia de un amplio segmento de poder económico del estado a su pueblo. En consecuencia, los chinos pueden operar granjas familiares, ser dueños de casas y empresas, controlar sus elecciones en materia educativa, patentar inventos y amasar fortunas. Es precisamente el ejercicio de estos derechos individuales lo que ha creado las bases para la transformación económica que se está produciendo en China.

Cuando generó intereses económicos privados tan diversos y conflictivos, típicos de una sociedad capitalista, China se vio obligada a crear un conjunto de instituciones para clarificar y mediar en el ejercicio de estos derechos. Estos acuerdos institucionales emergentes incluyen contratos y derecho comercial, códigos de quiebra y laborales así como tribunales para supervisar su implementación. Más recientemente, comisiones locales, organizaciones no gubernamentales, medios de comunicación cada vez más agresivos y manifestaciones públicas sancionadas se han vuelto los canales establecidos para mediar en el conflicto social.

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