Chinas versteckte Demokratisierung

SHANGHAI – Seit Xi Jinping zum neuen Präsidenten Chinas ernannt wurde, kam es immer wieder zu Berichten über offizielle Repressionen gegen andere Meinungen. Aber während die Kritik an der Menschenrechtssituation in China durchaus berechtigt ist, ist es auch wichtig, das Ausmaß echten politischen Wandels in China nicht aus den Augen zu verlieren.

Seit 1978 wurde im politischen System Chinas ein großer Teil der wirtschaftlichen Macht vom Staat an seine Bürger abgegeben. Daher können die Chinesen heute landwirtschaftliche Familienbetriebe, Häuser und Unternehmen besitzen, ihre Ausbildung selbst wählen, Erfindungen patentieren und Vermögen anhäufen. Und auf genau diesen individuellen Rechten baut der momentane wirtschaftliche Wandel Chinas auf.

Dies führte zu der Vielfalt an privatwirtschaftlichen Interessen, die für eine kapitalistische Gesellschaft typisch sind, und China musste Institutionen einführen, die diese Durchsetzung dieser Rechte klären und zwischen ihnen vermitteln. Zu diesen institutionellen Einrichtungen gehören Verträge und Wirtschaftsgesetze, Konkursverwaltung, Arbeitsrichtlinien und Gerichte zu ihrer Durchsetzung. In letzter Zeit werden soziale Konflikte immer öfter durch Kanäle wie lokale Kommissionen, Nichtregierungsorganisationen, zunehmend durchsetzungsstärkere Medien und genehmigte öffentliche Demonstrationen kanalisiert.

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