欧洲一体化不可避免的重生

雅典——欧洲一体化意味着国家主权陆陆续续向欧盟的转移。可是,当成员国乐于在取消保护措施方面合作的同时——比如取消进口税——它们却在制定和推行相关政策,赋予欧盟采取行动的自主权方面一直犹豫不决。这一现状的典型事例就是延迟批准《里斯本战略》,建立不完整的欧洲经济和货币联盟,以及在爱尔兰共和国目前实行阻碍政策之后,新《欧盟宪法条约》(也就是《里斯本条约》)前途未卜的命运。

在欧洲为在全球体系里寻找一席之地所付出的艰苦努力中,同样的弱点也清晰可见。能源安全、气候变化、中国崛起、俄国复兴是需要进行有效应对的众多问题之中的几个。通常情况下,欧盟根本无法做出回应,或者回应的速度非常缓慢,因为欧盟自身的构造令它无法迅速做出决定并快速采取行动。这样的构造在已经过去的年代曾经发挥过积极的作用,那时候自由市场几乎是欧盟在全球范围内需要面对的唯一一个问题。但那样的时代已经一去不复返了。

欧盟机构民主合法性的缺失使得变化的到来困难重重。与欧洲民众缺乏直接的联系导致这些机构失去了必要的压力,而只有压力才能带来敏锐的政策和快速的行动。

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