L’incognita della disuguaglianza

DAVOS – Con l’evolversi dei drammatici eventi scoppiati in Nord Africa, molti osservatori esterni al mondo arabo affermano in modo compiaciuto che si tratta solo di corruzione e di repressione politica. Anche l’elevata disoccupazione, la palese disuguaglianza e i prezzi alle stelle dei beni di prima necessità assumono tuttavia un ruolo fondamentale. Allora, gli osservatori non dovrebbero solo preoccuparsi di sapere se simili eventi si propagheranno nella regione, dovrebbero chiedersi quali cambiamenti potrebbero svilupparsi nei loro paesi sulla scia di pressioni economiche simili, se pur non di tale entità.

La disuguaglianza in termini di reddito, ricchezza e opportunità è probabilmente più elevata ora all’interno di ogni paese, rispetto a qualsiasi altro periodo dell’ultimo decennio. In tutta Europa, Asia e nelle Americhe, le società per azioni hanno le tasche piene di denaro dal momento che il loro irrefrenabile impulso all’efficienza continua a produrre enormi profitti. Eppure la percentuale di lavoratori sta calando, a causa dell’alto tasso di disoccupazione, della riduzione delle ore lavorative e dei salari stagnanti.

Paradossalmente, i gradi di disuguaglianza tra i vari paesi, rispetto al reddito e alla ricchezza, stanno in realtà diminuendo, grazie alla costante e robusta crescita dei mercati emergenti. Ma la maggior parte delle persone si preoccupa maggiormente di stare meglio dei propri vicini di casa senza considerare i cittadini di paesi lontani.

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