Jim Meehan

不平等性陷阱

华盛顿—越来越多的证据表明,不平等性正在世界诸多国家加剧,这一问题也随之引起了学者和政客的越来越多的关注。比如,在美国,最顶端的1%人口占收入的比例比20世纪70年代末翻了一番多,从年GDP的8%上升为目前的20%以上,上一次达到如此程度还是在20世纪20年代。

不平等性引起了人们关于道德和社会的担忧,但实际上,这些问题与宏观经济政策本身关系不大。不过,在20世纪早期,人们发现了这样的联系:有人指出,随着收入的逐渐集中,资本主义会导致有效需求的慢性疲软,导致“储蓄过剩”,因为富人大量囤积储蓄。者会促使国家转而寻求外部需求,从而引发“贸易战”。

但是,自20世纪30年代末以来,随着西方市场经济在二战结束后的快速增长和收入分配变得越来越公正,这一观点也逐渐销声匿迹了。虽然存在商业周期,但从未出现过需求的慢性疲软趋势。大部分宏观经济学家会说,短期利率总是可以降至足够的水平,刺激合理的就业率和需求。

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