Индейцы наносят ответный удар

Долгое время молчавшие индейцы Эквадора - как, впрочем, и группы коренных жителей в большинстве стран Латинской Америки - обрели свой политический голос и дали почувствовать свое присутствие. В ноябре голоса индейцев стали ключевым фактором в выборах политического аутсайдера-популиста, бывшего армейского полковника Лусио Гутьерреса в качестве президента этой небольшой страны в Андах.

Победа Гутьерреса, который принимал участие в провалившемся государственном перевороте против президента Джамиля Мауада в 2000 г., явилась серьезным ударом по быстрому утверждению Зоны свободной торговли Американского континента (FTAA) -- попытке администрации Буша создать торговый блок западного полушария, конкурирующий с Европейским Союзом. Выборы в Эквадоре продемонстрировали растущую силу индейцев и других групп, отстраненных от правительств, которые слишком сильно придерживаются политики, диктуемой из Вашингтона.

Гутьеррес является первым президентом, которого поддерживает влиятельная в Эквадоре Конфедерация индейских народов Эквадора (CONAIE). Исторически изолированные и бедные индейские народы составляют от 25% до 40% населения Эквадора. Конфедерация CONAIE, основанная в 1986, первоначально концентрировала свое внимание на культурных правах и перераспределении земли. После победы двуязычной системы образования в конце 1980-х гг. и добившись прав на землевладение для многих крестьян в 1992 г., CONAIE расширила сферу своих действий. Сегодня она является ведущим критиком эквадорских «нео-либеральных» политик в отношении глобализации.

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