Die Indianer schlagen zurück

Die ecuadorianischen Indianer finden gerade, nach einer langen Zeit der Passivität - wie indigene Gruppen fast überall in Lateinamerika, - ihre eigene politische Stimme und machen sich bemerkbar. Im November war das Votum der Indianer ausschlaggebend für die Wahl des populistischen politischen Außenseiters, Oberst a.D. Lucio Gutierrez, zum Präsidenten dieser kleinen Andenrepublik.

Der Sieg von Gutierrez, der 2000 an dem fehlgeschlagenen Staatstreich gegen Präsident Jamil Mahuad beteiligt war, mindert die Aussichten auf eine baldige Zustimmung zur Amerikanischen Freihandelszone (FTAA) - und bremst damit das Bestreben der Regierung Bush, auf den beiden amerikanischen Kontinenten eine Wirtschaftsunion als Rivalin der Europäischen Union zu schaffen. Die Wahlen in Ecuador zeigten deutlich die wachsende Stärke der Indianer und anderer Gruppen, die sich dem Einfluss von Regierungen zu entziehen suchen, deren Politik zu stark von Washington diktiert wird.

Gutierrez ist der erste Präsident, der die Unterstützung des einflussreichen Bundes der Indigenen Völker Ecuadors (CONAIE) besitzt. Historisch marginalisierte und verarmte indigene Völker machen zwischen 25% und 40% der Bevölkerung von Ecuador aus. CONAIE, gegründet 1986, konzentrierte seine Arbeit ursprünglich auf kulturelle Rechte und Umverteilung von Land. Nachdem er in den späten 80ern ein zweisprachiges Bildungssystem durchgesetzt und 1992 Landrechte für viele Landarbeiter gesichert hatte, hat CONAIE seine Kompetenzen erweitert. Heute ist er der führende Kritiker der ,,neoliberalen" Politik Ecuadors im Zusammenhang mit der Globalisierung.

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