Le lièvre chinois et la tortue indienne

« L’Inde est partout » : tel était le thème du Forum économique mondial de cette année. Dans le monde occidental, une grande importance est accordée aux réussites de la Chine tant et si bien que celles de l’Inde ne nous viennent à l’esprit qu’après coup. Pour bien souligner le fait que la stabilité politique doive triompher sur le long terme, les Indiens ont couvert tous les bus suisses de la bannière « L’Inde, la démocratie émergente la plus rapide du monde. »

Le blitz médiatique indien a été un succès monumental. À Davos, tous les orateurs ont repris l’idée selon laquelle même si la Chine tient actuellement la corde, sur le long terme, la course entre les deux géants asiatiques va se jouer à pile ou face. Tout du moins, pendant quelques jours, l’émergence de l’Inde comme une superpuissance, comparée à la Chine, était un fait accompli. Mais qu’en est-il réellement de la course entre ces deux économies qui concernent chacune plus d’un milliard de personnes ?

En apparence, la Chine dispose d’une confortable avance sur l’Inde. Il y a vingt-cinq ans, à l’aube du mouvement actuel de mondialisation, les productions nationales indienne et chinoise étaient approximativement identiques. Désormais, quels que soient les indicateurs économiques, la Chine est deux fois plus riche que l’Inde.

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