L'exception indienne

NEW DELHI – L'accord américano-indien portant sur le nucléaire qui vient d'être ratifié par le Congrès américain est un événement de portée historique. Initialement signé en juillet 2005, il marque une étape majeure dans le partenariat de plus en plus étroit entre les deux plus grandes et plus vieilles démocraties de la planète.

Il traduit la reconnaissance de ce que l'on pourrait appeler "l'exception indienne" - la décision de la seule superpuissance mondiale - de concert avec tous les autres pays impliqués dans le commerce du nucléaire - de vendre du matériel nucléaire à l'Inde, bien qu'elle refuse de signer le Traité de non-prolifération nucléaire (TNP) et qu'elle ait procédé à deux essais nucléaires.

Le refus de l'Inde de signer le TNP est un refus de principe, car ce Traité est le dernier vestige d'un apartheid sur la scène internationale, puisqu'il autorise les cinq pays membres permanents du Conseil de sécurité à détenir l'arme nucléaire, tout en l'interdisant aux autres. Favorable de longue date au désarmement général, la position de l'Inde à l'égard du TNP est approuvée quasi unanimement à l'intérieur du pays. Son programme d'armement dispose du même soutien (mais beaucoup moins à l'extérieur du pays), car les Indiens le considèrent comme un impératif de sécurité dans un environnement dangereux.

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