经济的再平衡举措

发自伦敦——我们都知道全球经济危机是如何发生的。首先是银行过度贷款给房地产市场。随后美国房地产泡沫破灭导致银行破产,这是因为银行业已经全球化而大银行之间都对方持有对方的不良贷款。银行破产导致信贷危机。贷款枯竭,经济开始萎缩。

于是政府出手拯救银行和经济,从而产生主权债务危机。由于每个人都忙于减少债务,经济就无法复苏。世界上很多地方——尤其是欧洲,当然也包括受影响稍微没这么严重的美国,仍身陷于半衰退之中。

那么我们如何从这种萧条中走出来呢?比较多的讨论是要进行财政紧缩还是要经济刺激。“紧缩派们”认为只有平衡政府预算并减少国家债务才能重振投资者的信心。凯恩斯主义者们则认为如果不实施大型财政刺激——也就是在短期内故意提升赤字——欧洲和美国经济将会在未来几年继续陷在衰退中。

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