O Futuro Feminino dos Mercados Emergentes

LONDRES – De acordo com as Nações Unidas, 70% das mulheres em todo o mundo são vítimas de violência durante as suas vidas. O Banco Mundial refere ainda que as mulheres dos 15 aos 44 anos têm maior probabilidade de ser vítima de violação ou de violência doméstica do que sofrer de cancro, acidentes de viação, guerra, ou malária. Tais indicadores são ainda mais alarmantes nos mercados emergentes, onde a discriminação e a desigualdade de género apresentam uma maior prevalência.

Isto reflecte parcialmente o falhanço das políticas públicas na melhoria das consequências distributivas do rápido crescimento económico. Com o sector informal a desempenhar ainda um papel primordial nas economias emergentes, muitas vezes as mulheres só têm acesso a emprego inseguro e transitório, que lhes concede salários casuísticos e irregulares. Entretanto, a urbanização sem precedentes perturbou as estruturas familiares tradicionais, minando ainda mais o papel que as mulheres podem desempenhar nas economias e nas sociedades.

O impacto danoso da discriminação activa de género – que compreende práticas como a imolação de noivas pelo fogo ou o infanticídio de meninas – é claro. Mas a discriminação passiva – a tolerância a regras e instituições que negam às mulheres uma palavra a dizer em decisões reprodutivas, o acesso igual à educação e ao emprego, um salário igual para trabalho igual, direitos iguais perante a lei, e igualdade de influência política – é igualmente destrutiva.

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