Il Futuro della Donna nei Paesi Emergenti

LONDON – Secondo le Nazioni Unite, nella loro vita, il 70% delle donne di tutto il mondo sperimenta atti di violenza. La Banca Mondiale aggiunge che è più probabile che le donne di età compresa tra i 15 e i 44 anni sperimentino abusi sessuali o violenze domestiche piuttosto che il cancro, un incidente d’auto, una guerra, o la malaria. Tali indicatori sono ancora più allarmanti nei paesi ad economia emergente, dove la disuguaglianza di genere e la discriminazione sono particolarmente diffuse.

Ciò riflette in parte il fallimento delle politiche pubbliche per il miglioramento delle conseguenze distributive di una rapida crescita economica. Dato che il settore informale continua a svolgere un ruolo importante nelle economie emergenti, le donne spesso hanno accesso solo a lavori inaffidabili e transitori, che offrono salari occasionali e irregolari. Allo stesso tempo, una urbanizzazione senza precedenti ha sconvolto le strutture familiari tradizionali, compromettendo ulteriormente il ruolo che le donne possono svolgere all’interno degli ambiti economici e sociali.

È evidente l’impatto rovinoso di una discriminazione di genere attiva – si pensi al fenomeno delle spose bruciate vive e l’infanticidio delle bambine. Ma è altrettanto distruttiva la discriminazione passiva – la tolleranza di regole ed istituzioni che negano alle donne parità di parola sulle decisioni riproduttive, la parità di accesso all’istruzione e al lavoro, la parità di retribuzione a parità di lavoro, pari diritti di fronte alla legge, e parità di influenza politica.

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