L'avenir des femmes dans les pays émergents

LONDRES – D'après les Nations Unies, 70% des femmes à travers le monde font l'expérience de la violence au cours de leur vie. La Banque mondiale ajoute que les femmes âgées de 15 à 44 sont plus susceptibles de subir un viol ou de la violence domestique qu'un cancer, un accident de voiture, la guerre ou le paludisme. Ces indicateurs sont encore plus inquiétants sur les marchés émergents, où la discrimination et l'inégalité des sexes sont particulièrement répandues.

Ceci reflète en partie l'échec des politiques publiques pour atténuer les conséquences distributives d'une croissance économique rapide. Comme le secteur non structuré continue à jouer un rôle majeur dans les économies émergentes, les femmes ont souvent seulement accès à des emplois peu fiables et de courte durée, à des salaires occasionnels et irréguliers. Simultanément, une urbanisation sans précédent bouleverse les structures familiales traditionnelles et sape d'autant plus le rôle que les femmes peuvent jouer dans l'économie et la société.

L'impact préjudiciable d'une discrimination sexuelle active, comme l'immolation des épouses par le feu et l'infanticide des filles, est avéré. Mais une discrimination passive est tout aussi destructrice : car elle tolère des règlementations et des institutions qui ne mettent pas les femmes sur un pied d'égalité dans les décisions touchant à la reproduction, et qui leur refusent un accès égal à l'éducation et à l'emploi, à un salaire égal pour un travail égal, à des droits égaux et à une égale influence politique.

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