新兴市场的女性未来

伦敦—根据联合国的数据,全世界有70%的女性经历过暴力。世界银行则说,15—44岁年龄段的女性遭遇强奸和家庭暴力的机会比癌症、车祸、战争、疟疾还大。新兴市场的数字更加触目惊心,这些国家的歧视和性别不平等特别普遍。

这部分反映出公共政策没能解决快速经济增长的分配问题。在新兴经济体中,地下部门仍占据重要作用,女性通常只能找到不稳定的临时性工作,收入低廉且无保障。与此同时,前所未有的城市化摧毁了传统家庭结构,进一步破坏了女性可以在经济和社会中所能扮演的角色。

性别歧视(如索奁焚妻和扼杀女婴)猖獗的破坏性影响是显而易见的。但被动歧视——忍受否认女性在生育问题上的平等权利、平等接受教育和工作的权利、获得平等薪酬的权利、获得平等法律对待的权利、获得平等政治影响的权利的规则和制度——具有同样的破坏性。

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