Indiens weise Patententscheidung

NEW YORK: Die Weigerung des Oberste Gerichtshofs Indiens, das Patent für das vom Schweizer Pharmariesen Novartis entwickelte umsatzstarke Krebsmedikament Gleevec anzuerkennen, ist eine gute Nachricht für viele Krebspatienten in Indien. Falls andere Entwicklungsländer Indiens Beispiel folgen, wird es andernorts noch mehr solche guten Nachrichten geben: Es stände dann mehr Geld für andere Erfordernisse zur Verfügung, z.B. den Kampf gegen AIDS, Ausgaben in die Bildung oder Investitionen, die Wachstum und die Verringerung der Armut ermöglichen.

Doch die indische Entscheidung bedeutet auch, dass die großen Pharmamultis weniger Geld bekommen. Es überrascht nicht, dass dies bei ihnen und ihren Lobbyisten eine überreizte Reaktion hervorgerufen hat: Das Urteil, so behaupten sie, zerstöre den Anreiz zur Innovation und würde daher der öffentlichen Gesundheit weltweit einen schweren Schlag versetzen.

Diese Behauptungen sind maßlos übertrieben. Sowohl in wirtschaftlicher wie in sozialpolitischer Hinsicht scheint die indische Gerichtsentscheidung sinnvoll. Zudem stellt sie lediglich ein lokalisiertes Bemühen um eine Neugewichtung des weltweiten Regelwerks zum geistigen Eigentum dar, das in hohem Maße den Interessen der Pharmaindustrie dient, und zwar zu Lasten der öffentlichen Wohlfahrt. Tatsächlich gibt es einen zunehmenden Konsens unter den Ökonomen, dass das aktuelle Recht vom geistigen Eigentum Innovationen behindert.

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