Борьба за ресурсы в Азии.

НЬЮ-ДЕЛИ – Борьба за стратегические природные ресурсы – в том числе воду, минеральные руды и ископаемые виды топлива – всегда играла значительную роль в формировании условий мирового и экономического порядка. Но теперь эта борьба усилилась, поскольку охватила всю Азию, где рост численности населения и стремительное экономическое развитие последних трех десятилетий породили ненасытный аппетит на строго ограниченные запасы основных сырьевых товаров.

Азия является самым бедным по содержанию ресурсов континентом в мире, а чрезмерная эксплуатация имеющихся природных ресурсов создала экологический кризис, который вносит свой вклад в региональное изменение климата. Например, Тибетское нагорье, где находятся третьи по величине мировые запасы льда, нагревается в два раза быстрее среднего мирового уровня, что обусловлено редким сочетанием таких факторов, как большая высота над уровнем моря и низкие широты, что влечет за собой потенциально серьезные последствия для обеспечения Азии пресной водой.

Иными словами, три взаимосвязанных кризиса – ресурсный, экологический и климатический – угрожают экономическому, социальному и экологическому будущему Азии. Рост населения, урбанизация и индустриализация только усугубляют напряженность, связанную с природными ресурсами: некоторые города испытывают острую нехватку воды и значительное ухудшение экологической обстановки (что может засвидетельствовать каждый, кто испытал на себе пекинский смог). Обеим проблемам поспособствовали государственные субсидии на ископаемые виды топлива и воду.

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