Смерть от мужественности

ЛОНДОН. Средства массовой информации постоянно информируют нас о том, как повседневная деятельность может навредить нашему здоровью. Однако, пожалуй самый далеко идущий и все еще игнорируемый глобальный риск для здоровья связан с гендерными нормами.

Несмотря на неопровержимые доказательства того, что гендерные стереотипы и ожидания могут неблагоприятно воздействовать на здоровье, гендерные вопросы здоровья в значительной степени игнорируются или неверно интерпретируются, а международные организации здравоохранения зачастую ограничивают специфические гендерные усилия в отношении женщин или, в более узком определении, матерей. И все же, по данным Всемирной организации здравоохранения, во всем мире, за исключением трех стран, женщины могут рассчитывать на более долгую жизнь, нежели мужчины, сроком в семь лет в Японии, или чуть меньше года в более бедных странах Африки, расположенных к югу от Сахары.

Большая средняя продолжительность жизни женщин с давних пор связывается с различиями в «биологической предрасположенности», а теории варьируются от защиты, предоставляемой более низким уровнем железа у женщин и до отсутствия «лишних» генов, содержащихся в мужской Y-хромосоме. Однако некоторые наиболее очевидные факторы сокращения продолжительности жизни мужчин расположены в куда более прозаичной, однако политически чувствительной области: различия в «соответствующем» поведении для мужчин и женщин, которые диктуются обществом и укрепляются рынком.

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