La Primavera Árabe y la psicología de masas

ABU DHABI – En 1896, el psicólogo social Gustave Le Bon advirtió a sus contemporáneos acerca de los peligros que plantean las multitudes humanas, con las siguientes palabras: “es necesario, o bien llegar a una solución de los problemas presentados por su psicología, o bien resignarnos a ser devorados por ellas”. Ahora que en todo el mundo árabe se suceden protestas espontáneas que toman desprevenidos a los movimientos políticos organizados, los dirigentes de las nacientes democracias de Túnez, Egipto y Libia deberían prestar mucha atención a la advertencia de Le Bon.

Desde que multitudes de personas tomaron las calles de Túnez, El Cairo, Bengasi y otras ciudades árabes y derribaron regímenes que se habían mantenido en pie por décadas, espectadores y analistas se hacen la misma pregunta: ¿hacia dónde va el mundo árabe? Pero en su pregunta suele estar implícita solamente la dimensión política de estos acontecimientos: ¿quiénes son los líderes, cuáles son las demandas?

En realidad, la persistencia, la intensidad y la frecuencia de las protestas (de las que sirve de ejemplo lo sucedido en septiembre en Bengasi, cuando miembros de las milicias locales mataron al embajador estadounidense en Libia, J. Christopher Stevens) demuestran hasta qué punto la cultura y la psicología de masas determinarán el curso futuro del mundo árabe. Tras décadas de gobiernos autoritarios, los ciudadanos, cansados de instituciones desprestigiadas y partidos políticos paralizados, empezaron a usar las redes sociales para organizar la resistencia civil.

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