Le changement du FMI

NEW YORK – La réunion de printemps annuelle du Fond Monétaire International a marqué de manière notable les efforts du Fond pour se distancer de sa propre doctrine en ce qui concerne les contrôles de capitaux et la flexibilité du marché du travail. Il semble qu’un nouveau FMI a graduellement émergé, de manière prudente, sous le leadership de Dominique Strauss-Kahn.

Un peu plus de 13 ans plus tôt, lors de la réunion du FMI à Hong Kong en 1997, le Fond avait tenté d’amender sa charte de manière à obtenir plus de liberté pour pousser les pays vers la libéralisation de leur marché des capitaux. Il n’aurait pas pu choisir un pire moment : la crise est-asiatique était alors en préparation – une crise qui était largement le résultat de la libéralisation des marchés de capitaux dans une région qui, étant donné son taux d’épargne élevé, n’en avait pas besoin.

Il s’agissait d’une demande des marchés financiers occidentaux – et des ministères des finances occidentaux qui les servent de manière si loyale. La dérégulation financière aux Etats-Unis a été la cause principale de la crise globale qui a éclaté en 2008, et la libéralisation des autres marchés financiers et de capitaux a permis la propagation ce trauma « made in USA » à travers le monde.  

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