国际货币基金组织面临的美国问题

国际货币基金组织今年春天的这次会议被誉为是一次突破,因为基金组织的官员们将要对贸易不平衡这个引起全球动荡的主要因素进行新的“监控”。就全球经济的健康发展以及国际货币基金组织自身的合法性而言,这一新的使命具有特别重要的意义。但是,基金组织是否有能力承担这一工作呢?

在全球经济体系中,美国这个最富有的国家每天向其他国家的借款要超过20亿美元——尽管他们已经接受过关于良好管理原则以及财政责任的教育。因此,对于肩负着保证全球经济稳定的国际货币基金组织来说,存在着非常高的风险:如果其他国家对债务日益增多的美国失去信心,那么世界金融市场将出现巨大的动荡。

国际货币基金组织的任务是非常艰巨的。当然,基金组织的重点在于全球性不平衡而非双边贸易不平衡。在多边贸易体系中,双边贸易的大额逆差可以通过和其他国家的贸易顺差来弥补。中国也许想要中东的石油,但中东那些由少数人掌握巨大财富的国家,也许对古奇手袋更感兴趣而非中国大规模制造的商品。因此中国在与中东的贸易中呈现逆差,但与美国贸易则为顺差。但这种双边贸易平衡并不能体现中国对全球不平衡的总体影响。

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