ハマスの時代

イスラエルによる、ガザ地区の 21 のすべておよび西岸地区の 4 つの入植地からの単独撤退は、パレスチナ人の新しい現実を生んだ。この状況の変化に対してパレスチナ人が選択する対応は、最終的に彼らが独立国家を獲得できるかどうかを決定しうるものである。すなわちこの歴史的瞬間は、パレスチナ人にとって絶好の機会となりうる。または、アバ エバン (Abba Eban) の言葉を借りれば、再び機会を逃す機会とも言える。

パレスチナ人の反応は、主にパレスチナの中核政治が、解放後のガザにおける権力の大部分を占有することが予想されるパレスチナのイスラム主義運動の拡大する勢力と、いかに渡り合うかにかかっている。武装勢力はイスラエルに対する戦いを開始するのであろうか、またはパレスチナ自治政府は攻撃に対抗または制裁措置を取るのであろうか。アッバス パレスチナ自治政府議長が統治する非宗教的運動ファタハにしても、イスラム主義ハマスにしても、解放後をどのように引き継ぐかについてどの程度理解できているのであろうか。

アッバスおよびパレスチナ当局は「1 つの政権、1 つの法律機構および多元的政治」の必要性を強調する。アッバスはまた、武器を一方 (パレスチナ自治政府) にのみ持たせることを望んでいる。彼はパレスチナ武装勢力に停戦するよう説得し、イスラエル人および世界に、入植地の廃止には、イスラエル - パレスチナ間の暴力が不要であることを示すことに成功した。

しかしこの成果を、単純に停戦の拡張、平和的選挙、およびガザ地区と西岸地区北部におけるパレスチナ当局の強固な支配と結び付けて考えてもよいものであろうか。これらの失敗は、独立国家獲得という正当なパレスチナ人の目的にとっての、さらなる敗北につながる。

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