L’Histoire à la fin de l’histoire

Il y a quinze ans, dans mon livre La fin de l’histoire et le dernier homme ( The End of History and the Last Man ), j’affirmais que si une société voulait être moderne, elle n’avait d’autres possibilités que l’économie de marché et le système politique démocratique. Bien entendu, nous ne souhaitons pas tous être moderne et nous ne pouvons pas tous mettre en place les institutions et les politiques nécessaires au fonctionnement de la démocratie et du capitalisme. Toutefois, aucun autre système ne saurait donner de meilleurs résultats.

Si La fin de l’histoire portait donc essentiellement sur la modernisation, certains ont lié mon raisonnement à la politique extérieure du Président George W. Bush et à l’hégémonie stratégique américaine. Mais toute personne qui pense que mes idées constituent le fondement intellectuel des politiques du gouvernement Bush n’a pas accordé d’attention à ce que j’affirme depuis 1992 sur la démocratie et le développement.

Le Président Bush a initialement justifié l’intervention en Irak en invoquant les programmes de développement d’armes de destruction massive de Saddam Hussein, les liens présumés de ce dernier avec Al-Qaïda, ainsi que la violation des droits de l’homme et l’absence de démocratie. Les deux premières justifications ayant été réfutées à la suite de l’invasion de 2003, le gouvernement a progressivement insisté sur l’importance de la démocratie, tant en Irak que dans l’ensemble du Proche-Orient, comme bien-fondé de ses actions.

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