金钱的隐性成本

普林斯顿 - 当人们说“金钱是一切罪恶的根源”的时候,他们通常不是指金钱本身是罪恶的根源。人们是热爱金钱的,即使最早说这句话的Saint Paul也不例外。不管我们对金钱是否贪婪,金钱本身是否可能是个问题呢?

卡尔·马克思是这么认为的。马克思在他年轻时代所写的《1844年经济学哲学手稿》这一到二十世纪中叶才得以出版并被世人知晓的书中,把金钱描述为“放之四海而皆准的分离制造者”,因为金钱把人的特性改变为它物。马克思写道,一个人或许长得很丑,但如果他有钱,那就可以买到“最美的女子”。也就是说,如果没有钱,要做到这点,他就需要一些更正面的个人的素质。马克思认为,金钱使我们脱离人类真实的本性,使我们疏远他人。

马克思曾预言,劳动人民的革命可以带来一个新时代,在这样的时代中每个人的生活将变得更美好。而当大家认识到这一预言显而易见的错误之后,他的威望便跌落了。因此,如果他只是在说金钱的分离作用,我们或许可以把这一说法当作其错误理论的一个部分将之随意抛弃。但是《科学》杂志在2006年刊登的Kathleen Vohs、Nicole Mead和Miranda Goode三人的研究报告认为,至少在这一点上,马克思说的不无道理。

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