Пушки и золотые медали августа

КЕМБРИДЖ – Китай и Россия только что показали миру контрастные примеры применения силы. Французский аналитик Доминик Муази сказал по этому поводу: «Тогда как Китай хочет привлечь количеством своих олимпийских медалей, Россия хочет впечатлить мир демонстрацией своего военного превосходства – противостояние китайской «мягкой силы» и российской «жесткой силы». Некоторые американские аналитики, такие как Эдвард Луттвак, сделали вывод, что российское вторжение в Грузию подтверждает «неприемлемость» мягкой силы и господство силы жесткой, военной. На самом же деле, все не так просто для обеих этих стран.

Мягкая сила – это возможность получить желаемое путем привлечения, нежели путем принуждения или подкупа. Это не является решением всех проблем. Любовь диктатора Северной Кореи Ким Чен Ира к голливудским фильмам вряд ли повлияет на его ядерную программу. Также, мягкая сила ни к чему не привела при попытках отговорить афганское правительство поддерживать Аль-Каеду в девяностых годах прошлого столетия.

Но другие цели, такие как стимулирование демократии и прав человека, лучше достигаются мягкой силой, которая также может создавать способствующее или дезорганизующее окружение, что было открыто Соединенными Штатами после вторжения в Ирак.

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