八月的炮火和金牌

坎布里奇——在如何运用权力方面,中国和俄国恰好在世人面前形成了鲜明的对比。就像法国分析家多米尼克·莫伊西不久前所说的那样,“中国力图用夺得奥林匹克奖牌的数量来震撼和影响世界,而俄国则想靠展示自己的军事优势给世人留下深刻的印象——这就是中国的软实力和俄国的硬实力。”某些美国评论家,比如爱德华·勒特韦克,认为俄国侵略格鲁吉亚证明了软实力“毫无用处”,最终起到决定作用的还是强硬的军事实力。但实际对这两个国家来讲,这个问题所造成影响的复杂性远远超出了人们的想象。

软实力是指通过吸引而非强迫或收买来达到目的的能力。软实力并不能解决所有问题。北朝鲜独裁领袖金正日爱看好莱坞电影不太可能对他的核武器计划造成任何影响。而软实力在20世纪90年代阻止阿富汗塔利班政府支持基地组织方面也没有取得任何成绩。

但利用好软实力能够更好地实现其它目标,比如推动民主和人权的发展。软实力能创造出有利或者是不利的环境,这一点美国在入侵伊拉克以后有了清醒的认识。

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