الـمَدافع والذهب في أغسطس

كمبريدج ـ قدمت الصين وروسيا للعالم مؤخراً مثالاً للتباين الصارخ في استخدام القوة. ولقد عبر المحلل السياسي الفرنسي دومينيك مويزي عن الأمر مؤخراً فقال: "بينما تعتزم الصين إغواء العالم وإبهاره بعدد ميدالياتها الذهبية الأوليمبية، تريد روسيا أن تذهل العالم باستعراض تفوقها العسكري ـ قوة الصين الناعمة في مقابل قوة روسيا الصارمة". ولقد استنتج بعض المحللين الأميركيين، مثل إدوارد لوتواك ، أن إقدام روسيا على غزو جورجيا يثبت أن القوة الناعمة أصبحت "عديمة القيمة"، وأن الغلبة باتت للقوة العسكرية الصارمة. بيد أننا سوف نتبين في النهاية أن القصة أكثر تعقيداً بالنسبة لكل من الدولتين.

إن القوة الناعمة هي القدرة على الحصول على ما تريد من خلال جاذبيتك وليس بالقهر أو العقاب. وقد لا يكون في القوة الناعمة الحل لكل المشاكل. على سبيل المثال، ليس من المحتمل أن يكون لولع دكتاتور كوريا الشمالية كيم جونغ إل بأفلام هوليود أي تأثير على برنامجه لتصنيع الأسلحة النووية. ولم تفلح القوة الناعمة في إثناء حكومة طالبان في أفغانستان عن دعم وإيواء تنظيم القاعدة أثناء فترة التسعينيات.

بيد أن أهداف أخرى، مثل الترويج للديمقراطية وحقوق الإنسان، يتسنى تحقيقها على نحو أفضل بالاستعانة بالقوة الناعمة، القادرة أيضاً على خلق بيئة مواتية أو غير مواتية، كما اكتشفت الولايات المتحدة في أعقاب غزو العراق.

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