El Gulag de la mente rusa

Han pasado ya 15 años desde el golpe fallido de agosto de 1991 contra Mikhail Gorbachev. En ese entonces, las políticas de Gorbachev de perestroika y glasnost eran vistas por los soviéticos de línea dura como una traición a la Rusia comunista, en beneficio del Occidente capitalista. Sin embargo, ahora resulta evidente que la KGB y el ejército -que iniciaron el golpe- no estaban defendiendo la idea del comunismo, sino protegiendo su idea de la misión imperial de Rusia, noción que había dado a los comisarios del Kremlin un control del vasto imperio ruso y de los vecinos de Rusia mayor que el disfrutado por cualquiera de los zares.

Las reformas de Gorbachev no solamente liberaron a los rusos comunes y corrientes de la camisa de fuerza del marxismo-leninismo, sino que también dieron rienda suelta a las aspiraciones nacionales de pueblos que habían estado encerrados en el imperio por siglos. Tras ver a los pueblos de Europa Central liberándose de la dominación soviética hacía apenas dos años, las naciones que habían sido parte de la URSS comenzaban a buscar la misma libertad.

Estonia, Letonia y Lituania, en el Báltico, fueron las primeras en insistir en recorrer su propio camino nacional, y desde entonces lo han vinculado a Europa, como miembros de la Unión Europea y la OTAN. Otras no tardaron en seguir su ejemplo. Ya en diciembre de 1991, el imperio soviético había dejado de existir.

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