Der Gulag der russischen Seele

Fünfzehn Jahre sind nun nach dem gescheiterten Staatsstreich gegen Michail Gorbatschow im August 1991 vergangen. Damals wurden Gorbatschows Perestroika und Glasnost von sowjetischen Hardlinern als Ausverkauf des kommunistischen Russland an den kapitalistischen Westen gesehen. Heute ist allerdings klar, dass der KGB und das Militär, die den Staatsstreich initiierten, keineswegs die Idee des Kommunismus verteidigten. Vielmehr ging es ihnen um den Schutz ihrer Vorstellung von Russlands imperialer Mission, wonach die Kommissare des Kremls mehr Kontrolle über das riesige russische Reich und seine Nachbarn gehabt hätten als jemals ein Zar.

Die Reformen Gorbatschows befreiten die gewöhnlichen Russen nicht nur aus der Zwangsjacke des Marxismus-Leninismus, sondern förderten auch nationale Wunschträume jener Menschen zu Tage, die über Jahrhunderte im Reich gefangen waren. Nachdem man gesehen hatte, wie sich die Völker Mitteleuropas aus der sowjetischen Vorherrschaft befreiten, begannen die Mitgliedsstaaten der UdSSR diese Freiheit auch für sich anzustreben.

Die baltischen Republiken Estland, Lettland und Litauen waren die ersten, die ihren eigenen nationalen Weg einschlugen. Als Mitglieder der Europäischen Union und der NATO ist ihr Schicksals seither an Europa gebunden. Andere Länder folgten bald darauf. Im Dezember 1991 gab es kein sowjetisches Reich mehr.

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