Quand l'Amérique s'efface

BERLIN – Madeleine Albright, l'ancienne secrétaire d'Etat, a qualifié les USA de pays indispensable. La situation mondiale montre qu'elle avait raison. Mais c'est une démonstration à contrario, liée à l'effacement des USA dans toute une série de crises (notamment en Syrie), qui illustre leur importance sur la scène internationale.

Le monde post-américain se dessine sous nos yeux. Il se caractérise par l'ambiguïté politique, l'instabilité, voire le chaos, et non par l'émergence d'un nouvel ordre international. Cette situation est inquiétante ; elle pourrait devenir tellement dangereuse que même les anti-Américains les plus acharnés pourraient regretter la domination des USA au cours du siècle passé et leur rôle de gendarme mondial.

Tant du point de vue subjectif qu'objectif, ils ne peuvent et ne veulent plus assumer ce rôle. Il y a plusieurs raisons à cela : une décennie de guerre au Moyen-Orient avec son coût colossal au point de vue humain et financier, la crise économique et financière, leur dette publique, leur recentrage politique vers les problèmes intérieurs et leur réorientation vers le Pacifique. Ajoutons à cela leur déclin relatif lié à la montée en puissance de la Chine et des autres pays émergents.

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