Die verschwommenen Grenzen der Wirtschaftspolitik

MAILAND – In der ganzen Welt haben politische Maßnahmen, Technologien und erweiterte Lernprozesse dazu beigetragen, Hemmnisse für den Handel zwischen einzelnen Ländern abzubauen. Man kann jeden beliebigen Indikator nehmen: Handel im Verhältnis zum globalen Bruttoinlandsprodukt, Kapitalflüsse im Verhältnis zum globalen Grundkapital usw. – alle steigen.

Aber Wirtschaftspolitik wird meist auf nationaler Ebene festgelegt, und, mit wenigen bemerkenswerten Ausnahmen wie Handelsabkommen und die Verfolgung von Terrorismusfinanzierung und Geldwäsche, legen die Entscheidungsträger Ziele im Hinblick auf die Förderung der eigenen Wirtschaft fest. Und diese politischen Maßnahmen (oder ihre Änderungen) beeinträchtigen zunehmend andere Volkswirtschaften und das globale System, indem sie verursachen, was man „externe Effekte“ nennen könnte – also Folgen, die über die eigentliche Zielumgebung hinausgehen.

Natürlich hat es diese externen Effekte schon immer gegeben. Aber sie waren eher gering. Und während sie immer mehr Bedeutung erlangten (als Ergebnis einer größeren globalen Vernetzung), ist es unvermeidlicherweise auch schwieriger geworden, sie zu kontrollieren. Schließlich würde eine globale Optimierung auch eine globale politische Entscheidungsinstanz erfordern, die wir nicht haben.

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