Los brotes verdes de la economía verde

NAIROBI – En el transcurso de dos años, la idea de una “economía verde”, con sus vínculos con el desarrollo sostenible y la erradicación de la pobreza, ha pasado de ser una idea interesante a ser uno de los dos temas prioritarios de la próxima Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Desarrollo Sostenible o Río+20.

Puede que haya muchos que se pregunten si la de “economía verde” es simplemente una expresión de jerga agradable o una vía verdaderamente nueva hacia un siglo XXI sostenible, con reducidas emisiones de carbono y eficiente en materia de recursos. ¿Es fundamentalmente el abandono de los modelos de desarrollo del pasado que proclaman sus defensores o un simple caso más de traje medioambiental del emperador?

Tal vez pueda encontrarse la respuesta en algunas de las extraordinarias transiciones que se están produciendo en los sectores eléctrico y energético de todo el mundo. Por ejemplo, muchos se burlan de la idea de que la energía solar pueda ser otra cosa que un nicho de mercado para entusiastas o algo oneroso e inútil a lo que han dado un bombo exagerado unos idealistas medioambientales. En 2002, un fondo privado de inversión en acciones calculó que las instalaciones anuales de paneles solares fotovoltaicos podrían alcanzar los 1,5 gigavatios en 2010. En realidad, en 2010 se instalaron 17,5  gigavatios, un 130 por ciento más que en 2009 y se prevé que este año las instalaciones fotovoltaicas aumentarán tal vez en 20,5 gigavatios, con lo que la capacidad mundial ascenderá a unos 50 gigavatios: el equivalente de unos quince reactores nucleares.

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