Báječný stroj na výrobu pracovních míst

Až do letošního třetího čtvrtletí se největší otazníky nad hospodářstvím USA týkaly pyrrhovského ,,oživení bez zaměstnanosti". Během září a října se ale čistá zaměstnanost zvýšila o 290 tisíc míst, čímž zdaleka překonala všechny odhady. Ovšem ačkoliv ve službách vzniklo přes 300 tisíc nových pracovních příležitostí, ve zpracovatelském průmyslu více než 50 tisíc míst zaniklo. To je víc, než kolik lze vysvětlit dlouhodobým posunem ekonomiky od průmyslu ke službám.

Prudký nárůst produktivity práce - o 7,2% ve třetím čtvrtletí - zároveň naznačuje, že ve zpracovatelském sektoru i nadále přetrvává značná nadměrná kapacita. Neočekávejme tedy, že se v USA nadějeme zlepšení zaměstnanosti skrze pracovní místa v továrnách. Právě naopak, k obnově růstu zaměstnanosti v USA dochází díky větší flexibilitě služeb.

Důkazy o takovém růstu se vyskytují hojně. Například velký obchodní dům Kohl's otevřel v říjnu 48 nových komplexů a do každého z nich najal 140 lidí. Řetězec supermarketů Stop & Shop znovu pro zákazníky zavedl donášku zboží od pokladen k vozidlům - službu, s níž bylo skoncováno před desítkami let - a v mnoha obchodech prodloužil otevírací dobu.

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