Большая гонка за умы

ВАШИНГТОН. На протяжении десятилетий исследовательские университеты в Соединённых Штатах были всемирно признанными лидерами в науке и инженерии, непревзойдёнными со времён второй мировой войны по полноте объёма и отличному качеству образования и инноваций, которые там генерируются. Но все больше признаков говорят о том, что остальной мир движется вперёд всё быстрее – строя новые университеты, улучшая существующие, жёстко конкурируя за лучших студентов и вербуя прошедших обучение в США докторов философии (PhD), агитируя их возвращаться на родину и работать в университетах и промышленных лабораториях. Неужели неофициальная учёная иерархия вот-вот рухнет?

Нет сомнений, что образовательные учреждения стали куда более глобальными, особенно в естественных науках. Почти три миллиона студентов сейчас обучаются за пределами своих стран – 57%-е увеличение за последние десять лет. Иностранные студенты сейчас преобладают на многих Американских докторских программах, количественная оценка PhD в компьютерных науках, например, составляет 64%. Пекинский университет и Университет Цинхуа вместе недавно превзошли Беркли как основные источники студентов, желающих получить степень американского доктора философии.

Профессорско-преподавательский состав тоже в движении. Половина лучших физиков мира больше не работает в своих родных странах. И крупнейшие учреждения, такие как Нью-Йоркский университет и Университет Ноттингема создают филиалы на Ближнем Востоке и в Азии. Сейчас по всему миру существует 162 университета-спутника, 43% рост всего за последние три года.

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