Hochfliegende Illusionen

Politikern wird oft vorgeworfen viel zu versprechen, was sie nicht einhalten können. In Argentinien verkauften Ökonomen den Politikern zwei Utopien, die nicht verwirklicht werden konnten. Ihr Versagen stürzte das Land in die schwerste politische und finanzielle Krise der letzten Jahrzehnte. Präsident Fernando de la Rúa wurde durch Unruhen, in denen 29 Menschen ihr Leben verloren, aus dem Amt gejagt. Nicht bezahlte Löhne, eingefrorene Bankkonten und eine Arbeitslosenrate von 20 % sind die Folgen zweier hochfliegender Illusionen, unter denen die Bürger Argentiniens nun zu leiden haben.

Die erste war die vermeintlich stärkende Wirkung eines Currency Boards. Nennen wir sie die Zauberstab- Illusion. Als in Argentinien im Jahre 1991 der Peso an den Dollar gebunden wurde und es dadurch für die Zentralbank unmöglich wurde, die Notenpresse unbegrenzt einzusetzen, applaudierte die ganze Welt - mit gutem Grund. Diese neue Politik beendete Jahrzehnte hoher Inflation und exzessiver Banknotenproduktion. Das Currency Board war jedoch nicht nur ein monetäres System, sondern auch eine Reformstrategie. Das war zuviel und damit begann Argentiniens Abstieg.

Man sagte, das Land wurde nicht früher reformiert, weil dazu kein Bedarf bestand. Wenn die Gewerkschaften zu hohe Lohnforderungen stellten, wurde das Problem durch eine Währungsabwertung beseitigt. Wenn die Provinzregierungen ein bisschen zu viel ausgaben, wurde schnell die Notenpresse angeworfen und damit das Schlimmste verhindert. Die Inflation war das Schmiermittel im Getriebe der argentinischen Politik.

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