Klamy ekonomiky

Politikům bývá často dáváno za vinu, že slibují, co nemohou splnit. Dva takové nesplnitelné sny prodali ekonomové politikům v Argentině. Jejich krach poslal zemi do nejhlubší politické a finanční krize za několik posledních desítek let. Pouliční střety si vyžádaly devětadvacet obětí a odstoupení prezidenta Fernanda de la Rúy. Obyvatelé, kteří zápolí s nevyplacenými mzdami, zmrazenými bankovními účty a nezaměstnaností vyšší než 20 procent, teď na vlastní kůži pociťují důsledky dvou obrovských ekonomických bludů.

První blud se týká měnové rady a jejích údajných ozdravných účinků. Nazvěme jej ,,klamem kouzelného proutku". Když Argentina v roce 1991 svázala své peso s dolarem a zakázala centrální bance volný tisk platidel, svět tleskal - a měl k tomu dobrý důvod. Nová politika ukončila desetiletí vysoké inflace a měnové anarchie. Měnová rada ovšem nebyla jen měnovým systémem, byla také reformní strategií. Zkáza Argentiny začala právě tady.

Země se nikdy předtím k žádné reformě neuchýlila, neboť - jak tvrdí teorie - nemusela. Kdyby se odbory zasazovaly o příliš vysoké mzdy, problém by vyřešila devalvace; kdyby místní samospráva utrácela více než záhodno, situaci by napravilo několik nočních směn v tiskárně cenin. Inflace byla mazivem soukolí argentinské politiky.

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