La mondialisation de l’éthique

Bon nombre d’Européens doutent que l’Asie puisse rattraper l’Europe au niveau de l’intégration régionale. Pourtant, en plus de fondements éthiques stables qui furent si chers à l’intégration européenne, l’Asie dispose d’un ensemble bien développé de principes moraux, dont certains faisaient partie intégrante de sa culture bien avant l’adoption de modèles similaires en Europe. Et ces fondements asiatiques ont leur place dans une éthique planétaire naissante.

Certes, l’Asie n’a pas encore de culture cohésive comparable à celle de l’Europe, qui se fonde sur la tradition judéo-chrétienne et les Lumières. Mais les Européens ne doivent pas être arrogants pour autant, vu que ces dernières années la culture européenne commune a révélé sa fragilité, notamment face à la stratégie du gouvernement Bush opposant la « vieille » à la « nouvelle » Europe, dans le but de diviser pour mieux régner. Juste au moment où les attaques terroristes inhumaines du 11 septembre 2001 nuisaient gravement à la crédibilité de l’Islam, l’invasion de l’Irak – qui s’appuyait sur des mensonges – était néfaste au christianisme et aux valeurs occidentales.

Si le noyau culturel de l’Europe semble faire défaut à l’Asie, des constantes éthiques régissent depuis longtemps les sociétés asiatiques et font ressortir des fondements communs. A certains égards, l’Asie a effectivement plus d’expérience que l’Europe en matière de relations interculturelles. Dès le troisième siècle avant notre ère, le bouddhisme se propageait pacifiquement de l’Inde au Sri Lanka et dans de vastes régions d’Asie du Sud-Est. Au premier siècle de notre ère, il a continué sa progression le long de la Route de la soie vers l’Asie centrale et la Chine, pour finalement atteindre la Corée et le Japon des siècles plus tard.

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