El desafío del empleo global

NUEVA YORK.– Durante las últimas tres décadas, cientos de millones de nuevos trabajadores ingresaron en la nueva economía. Llegaron con niveles de educación y habilidades diversos y con el tiempo, por lo general, ganaron «capital humano» –y valor agregado e ingreso. Esto ha generado un impresionante y sostenido crecimiento en los niveles de empleo, las oportunidades y el tamaño de la economía mundial. Pero los nuevos trabajadores además trajeron consigo competencia por los puestos de trabajo e importantes cambios en los salarios y los precios relativos, que están generando profundos efectos distributivos.

Estos cambios estructurales masivos en la economía mundial presentan tres grandes desafíos para el empleo global, con variantes propias en cada país.

El primer desafío es generar suficientes empleos para recibir el flujo de nuevas incorporaciones al mercado de trabajo. Claramente, muchos países avanzados y en desarrollo no lo están logrando. El desempleo entre los jóvenes es elevado y continúa creciendo. Incluso en los países en desarrollo con rápido crecimiento, el exceso de oferta de mano de obra espera su inclusión en la economía moderna, y se siente la presión para mantener la creación de empleos.

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