全球就业挑战

纽约——过去30年来,数以亿计的新工人进入了全球经济中。他们教育程度和技能水平各不相同,但随着时间的推移,从“人力资本”——以及附加值和收入——的角度来说,他们都获得了好处。这带来了收入水平、机会和全球经济规模的持续大升。但这些新工人也带来了更多的就业竞争以及相对工资和价格的剧变,产生了深远的分配效应。

全球经济的这些重大结构性变化表明,全世界面临着三大就业挑战,当然每个国家的具体实际各不相同。

第一大挑战是创造足够的就业岗位来容纳劳动力市场新军。显然,众多发达国家和发展中国家在这方面都失败了。年轻人失业率高企,而且在不断上升。即使是高增长发展中国家,也有剩余劳动力等待着现代经济的吸收,如何保持就业岗位创造趋势成了一个大问题。

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