El comercio transatlántico se torna global

STANFORD – Han comenzado las negociaciones entre Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea para el Acuerdo Transatlántico sobre Comercio e Inversión (ATCI), que puede convertirse en el mayor acuerdo de libre comercio regional de la historia. En caso de tener éxito, abarcaría más del 40 % del PBI mundial y representaría una gran parte del comercio y la inversión directa extranjera del mundo. EE. UU. y la UE han fijado una ambiciosa meta: completar las negociaciones a fines de 2014. Históricamente, sin embargo, la concreción de la mayoría de los acuerdos comerciales ha requerido mucho más tiempo.

La escala del ATCI es enorme. Con el ingreso de Croacia a principios de julio, la UE incluye ahora 28 estados miembros, cada uno con su conjunto particular de intereses especiales, que presionan en favor o en contra del comercio según sus ventajas comparativas, su historia y su poder político local.

Además, el alcance deseado del acuerdo es vasto y eso complica aún más el proceso. La ATCI eliminaría todos los aranceles comerciales y reduciría las barreras no arancelarias, incluidas las agrícolas; ampliaría el acceso a los mercados en el comercio de servicios; lograría la armonización regulatoria; fortalecería la protección de la propiedad intelectual; restringiría los subsidios a empresas estatales; y más. Todo esto garantiza negociaciones difíciles; de hecho, Francia ya ha exigido y recibido una «excepción cultural» para el cine y la televisión.

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