Gli Scambi Commerciali Transatlantici Diventano Globali

STANFORD – Hanno preso avvio le trattative tra gli Stati Uniti e l’Unione Europea sul trattato commerciale Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), potenzialmente il più grande accordo regionale di libero scambio della storia. In caso di successo, coprirebbe più del 40% del PIL mondiale e potrebbe contare su grandi quote di commercio mondiale e di investimenti diretti esteri. Gli Stati Uniti e l’Unione Europea hanno fissato l’ambizioso obiettivo di completare i negoziati entro la fine del 2014. Storicamente, però, la maggior parte degli accordi commerciali hanno richiesto molto più tempo per il loro completamento.

L’estensione del TTIP è enorme. Con l’adesione della Croazia, all’inizio di luglio, l’Unione Europea è ora composta da 28 Stati membri, ciascuno dei quali ha un proprio particolare insieme di interessi specifici, che spingono per la promozione o la protezione commerciale, in base a interessi legati ai vantaggi comparati, alla storia, ed al puro potere politico interno.

Inoltre, si desidera dare all’accordo una portata molto ampia , complicando ulteriormente il processo. Il TTIP eliminerebbe tutte le tariffe commerciali e ridurrebbe le barriere non tariffarie, compresse quelle agricole; amplierebbe l’accesso al mercato del commercio dei servizi; comporterebbe una più stretta uniformità normativa; rafforzerebbe la tutela della proprietà intellettuale; limiterebbe i sussidi alle imprese statali, ed ancora altro. Tutto questo però assicura difficili negoziati in futuro, infatti, la Francia ha già chiesto e ricevuto una “eccezione culturale” per il cinema e la TV.

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