La mondialisation du Partenariat Transatlantique

STANFORD – Les négociations entre les États-Unis et l'Union européenne sur le Partenariat transatlantique de commerce et d'investissement (TTIP) ont maintenant commencé, et représentent a priori le plus important accord de libre-échange pour cette zone dans l'Histoire. S'il aboutit, le TTIP va englober plus de 40% du PIB mondial et représenter de grandes parts du marché mondial et d'investissements directs étrangers. Les États-Unis et l'UE se sont fixé l'objectif ambitieux de clôturer les négociations d'ici fin 2014. Pourtant la conclusion de la plupart des accords commerciaux a souvent pris beaucoup plus de temps.

Les enjeux du TTIP sont considérables. Avec l'adhésion de la Croatie début juillet, l'UE compte désormais 28 États membres, chacun ayant ses propres intérêts spécifiques. Ces derniers les poussent vers la promotion ou la protection du commerce, en fonction de leur avantage comparatif, de leur histoire et de leur puissance politique nationale.

En outre, la portée souhaitée de l'accord est vaste, ce qui en complique encore le processus. Le TTIP est censé supprimer toutes les règles tarifaires et réduire les barrières non tarifaires y compris dans l'agriculture, élargir l'accès au marché du secteur des services, apporter une meilleure harmonisation de la réglementation, renforcer la protection de la propriété intellectuelle, limiter les subventions aux entreprises publiques, entre autres. Tout ceci promet des négociations difficiles : en effet la France a déjà demandé et obtenu une « exception culturelle » pour le cinéma et la télévision.

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